AscentCraft.com


For UnitedSpaceAgency to construct its LEO-PORT base, at a 300Km equatorial orbit, LARGE components have to be assembled in Low Earth Orbit … No “Welding and Grinding” is allowed in this “pristine” environment.... No loose nuts. Bolts or spanners are allowed outside its confines.... “No spit or dog ends” in the assembly site – such could kill a person or satellite in a different orbit.

AscentCraft are production line manufactured rocket craft compliant with the “Triple Use” philosophy. (www.TripleUse.com) production level of about 400 craft per year is sought, at an estimated unit cost of $10million each.

The tank shown below is Type 2, expanding from 10metre diameter to 12metre diameter at the top. Type 1 is a plain10metre diameter. The Height is 7metres. Its weight is 15 tonnes.

The engines shown are Saturn 5 – the engines we use are smaller and cheaper.... and other variations … they may be hinged out 60 degrees or more, with the resulting stresses being supported by the chassis, shown embedded in the tank here (my limited sketchup skills)

It has fixed landing legs that can handle 60 tonnes * (we may be able to do away with this)





The 15 tonne Tank and 6 engines is about 23 tonnes, allowing 7 tonnes for chassis, controller and legs only about 3 tonnes may end up as “Payload” that is purpose built. When the tanks are empty, in orbit, their ends may be unscrewed such that they may be joined to lengthen the habitube under construction.

The 525 Cubic metre tank can carry a lot of propellant (500 tonnes), But we may only put a small amount (30 tonnes) or medium amount 200tonnes in it. The legs would only handle craft + 30 tonnes, for other amounts the tank base must be supported.

“Normal Launch is from a tower support over water ( Somewhat Like an oil rig ) with a medium (200tonnes) propellant load - “Booster Rockets” (SRB) are not needed or wanted.

We don't take off at full power. There is plenty in reserve to cover multiple systems and component failures we may need only 40% power for takeoff and climb so more smaller engines better than just 6 main ones.

If we have an empty tower, we can retro Land on it. The only time we need landing gear is when we can't get to an empty launch tower – looks a bit like this...




(Have to learn Photoshop! ) (local water tower, but same principle – our AscentCraft is supported at the centre, and its engines may be flared outwards... clear land or water wouldn't catch fire as in the above!)


This is a SSTO – Single Stage To Orbit – Craft that has an entirely different flight profile to usual – after a fairly quick (+ 0.5G) take off, engine thrust is further reduced after about 20 seconds to limit this very unstreamlined craft's ascent – which uses a lot more propellant.

However, 20 such craft lift off together, and can pump some of their fuel to another Craft in flight. This is the alternative to multiple stages that would otherwise be required. These fleet ships do not pump ALL their fuels to other craft – they leave enough for themselves to safely return and land, with a reserve. About 16 can return to base, ONE goes to orbit, and the other three have to retro burn and land a considerable distance to the East of the launch site, and be shipped back usually by sea, or refuelled at landing point, and maybe also need refuelling in flight back to base too. It may be several days before the most distant (last refuelling) Craft is returned to launch base. There may need to be another 10 craft in addition to our 20 craft involved in daily launches




Earth Launch Base


Earth Launch Base has to be situated on, or very close to the Equator. And there is an acceleration area to the East, usually over ocean, for safety in case of a major failure.

The stability and connection of these (20) launch towers requires either an “oil rig” type platform in sheltered shallow waters, or a more elaborate one in deeper waters. Fuelling, and refrigerated maintenance of fuel prior to “Blast off” means large ships and smaller ones need to work together. About 1500 tonnes of kerosene is “quite easy, but 3,000 tonnes of liquid oxygen at the equator has to be kept cold right up to Launch time. The 20 Ascent craft all take off at the same time, but should be far enough apart that one failure does not cause another. Propellant transfers are easier above 15Km , as air drag and turbulence decrease. For this reason “the ideal launch site” is


  1. Chimborazo. Equador, this is a tall stratovolcano on the equator accessible mostly by road to 5Km altitude - this Height is a big advantage, as the thinner air allows quicker ascent, and the colder, drier air temperature is better for initial fuelling and initial climb speed (limited by craft size shape and drag = particularly in the lower atmosphere drag). Downrange safety is less assured though, as we have to traverse south America – Argentina at less than full orbital height. Although this is “The best” point to head to orbit, getting the fleet of LARGE 30 tonne AscentCraft there (from a ship or an assembly base) requires a long pre-flight to the base over some areas that are populated. Politics involved, and increased risk makes the 5Km height advantage a lot less worthwhile


  1. Nauru ...“Safest” sea level launch is on or just off Nauru's east coast – “Anibare” offers a very long rocket safety zone to the East over the Pacific, but does not provide much shelter for the ocean fleet without constructing a large harbour there. About 100 people living in the area will have to be relocated. The existing airport is big enough for medium sized propeller cargo aircraft, and perhaps small jets, and there is already accommodation, a small harbour and deep water (but unprotected) onloading and offloading facilities and town facilities on its West coast. The Island is an important radio communication base for remote operators servicing LEO-PORT and Haven1 (even if we are not permitted to launch from the island) for safety, security and politics, this is probably the best. Protecting the ocean fleet from storms would need expensive infrastructure to shelter fuelling and launch platform stowage in severe weather.. the built up harbour wall in the crescent cove off Anibare has “environmental impact” but is less fragile than Gallapagos islands which are of huge global Value. Nauru is seen as the best long-term Earth to Equatorial Orbit Base, with this added harbour.


  1. Ocean Island is to the East-South East could work well with Nauru Launches for recovery of 2 of the 3 AscentCraft “downrange refuellers” to land and be recovered from. Only the final refueller would have to use a deep ocean landing rig, rather than 3 elsewhere. As a Fleet Launch point it is less good, as it is a bit far south of the Equator, and again does not have much protection for the ocean fleet

  2. Kismayo South of Mogadishu on Africa's East coast does offer good weather protection for a large fleet, and many sheltered ocean waters behind offshore islands of its desert coast. It's also “Pirate central and political stability in this third world country is not good. If The political situation and violence in Mogadishu can be ended, it is the easiest and cheapest place for a (marine platform) equatorial launch site. The large offshore islands, provide sheltered waters for launch platforms. Mogadishu, and particularly the southern port can shelter fuel and construction ships in severe storm … very little, perhaps zero construction on land. But we don't want vagrant child militia firing guns at our $200M worth of “not bulletproof” space hardware and the $20M launch that we urgently need to use daily. We can be easily extorted by desperate people in an area where guns and fire must be severely avoided. A few commandos on jet-skis with RPG can do (or threaten) a lot of damage.


  1. The Equatorial - Atlantic East coast of South America – Brazil... is where the Amazon discharges, and the sea is only a few metres deep in mudflats. Mexiana Island is right on the equator, and largely unpopulated with very extensive mud flats suiting both onshore and offshore constructions. The city of Belem has a substantial jetport about 200Km away and well clear of our intended flight path. The extensive shallow seas allow offshore recovery (and Launch ) as far south as ILHA DA MULATA and offshore from it (1 to 1.5 degrees South). Brazil is a “friendly” nation that has good defence systems, and there is the Amazon, and many bays that could shelter fairly large ships in a storm.

  2. Principae, is off the East coast of Africa. Just Far enough to receive final tanker, but acceleration at 70Km altitude orbital stage is over Africa – no major towns, jungle. It has some excellent shelter and launch base sites and is French? Gabon estuary, in West Africa extends the ocean safety range

  3. Maldives (73 east) offers good shelter, but is bollywood snobsville …, too many rich people who don't want the noise? Keeping VIP kids in motor boats out of danger area?

  4. Sumatra islands, south of Singapore 105 degrees east have a good ocean safety range before Indonesia crossing.. good shelter, and a shallow sea. Good recovery zone. Air traffic busy here though... Pontianak in Indonesia is a megacity under the direct flight path..400Km downrange, 100Km altitude, 3-6Km/Sec. Suborbital

I should better describe the ocean fleet

  1. MOORED, We have a converted LNG tanker (Highly refrigerated) to maintain Liquid Oxygen for our 20,000 tonne per week need.

  2. A supply of LNG by merchants, perhaps 20,000 tonnes to power the refrigerator.

  3. A generator ship for electric and refrigeration Turbines burning LNG/CNG (Methane) – a lot of exhaust, but cleaner than a commercial jet engine – CO2, Yes, But Mostly H2O and not sooty, clean burn

  4. 20 launch towers – either small oil rig type, or floating ones deep immersion (Tilt ships or towable pylons) … Each supporting an AscentCraft filled with 200 tonnes of fuel (or more)

  5. a dock on land, or a floating one. Our AscentCraft are brought by calm Ocean – a cache must be held safe, locally, from storm

  6. Working and parking space. Custom built carrier? Sheltered water work only? Anchored platforms?


At the chosen sheltered anchorage all ships equipment and stores can be held safe in a big storm.


LAUNCH TIME


Fleet Launch is usually close to 6pm at the Launch Base. The reason for this is so that the AscentCraft begins its first Orbit in Earth's shadow. 45 minutes before it emerges again into full sunlight.


  1. The 20 Ascent craft are brought out from their hangars given 30 tonnes of propellant, and each individually piloted to their own launch towers soon before launch time.

  2. This short flight (Typically 1 to 5 minutes) tests all systems. This first flight is piloted to land on a launch tower perhaps several Km away ...perhaps off the coast

  3. Each AscentCraft on its Launch Tower is then loaded with (Typically 200tonnes) of propellant ready for the main fleet launch mission start.

  4. At “blast off”, though not all engines, nor full power is required, the 20 craft ascend simultaneously, or a few seconds apart – With up to 120 rocket engines burning it's VERY NOISY.

  5. 20 seconds after (1.5G ) liftoff, thrust is reduced. Our unstreamlined Craft is ascending at 100m/sec (360Km/Hr) and is at 1Km height (3,000ft). At 60 seconds Our Crtaft is over 5Km high.

  6. Fuel transfers could begin above 1Km, but air drag is pretty ferocious. Higher up (15Km plus) air is a lot thinner.... but we also travel a lot faster (but still subsonic)


Pollution


  1. We do not use the toxic chemicals of conventional “Solid Rocket Boosters” we burn High grade Kerosene “RP1” in pure Oxygen at high temperature. Our exhaust is about 2/3 H20 (steam), 1/3 CO2

  2. If our craft blows up any unburnt Kerosene is “an oil spill” and we are prepared to deal with that immediately. Launching 7,000 AscentCraft per year, (and retro landing 6,600 of them) the 99% successful record of the best conventional craft to date would mean failures more than once a week. We have a LOT more backup in our system, despite the weight penalty, but we can and do still expect some failures, and have appropriate response procedures and equipment.

  3. Our Biggest pollution is noise. Rocket engines cannot run quietly – their exhaust gas comes out at 3-6 Km/sec ot about Mach 9-Mach 12. a fleet of 20 with 6 engines each is VERY noisy

  4. By taking off with perhaps only 40% of maximum Propellant and 40% of maximum power, rather than the usual 100% PLUS solid rocket boosters, with cold engines. we are a lot less likely to have catastrophic accidents at takeoff. Full Power is not used below 50Km altitude on engines that are at proper working temperature. A single Failed engine does not stop the mission. Several failed engines can also be recovered from, if we have enough height and/or speed.

  5. Explosion in orbit is the worst possible outcome, and multiple systems minimise this possibilituy. The most important primary task in orbit is to REDUCE debris (Space junk) by gently capturing it.

  6. Our Power Generator (ocean) ship that produces Liquid Oxygen (by refrigerating air) uses a lot of fuel to produce a lot of power. We power our Gas-turbine power station “boat” with “Natural Gas” (Proper name, METHANE) which produces more Water than CO2 in its soot-free exhaust. We dump heat into ocean water to cool our mega refrigerator. A lot of water, heated just a little. Our engines exhaust contains much water, which will be visible as it cools from steam. It could be condensed and collected for drinking water. CO2 is not visible.



1302-015 edit in progress...













  1. Actual launches 1Km offshore from towable, storable platforms. Very noisy fleet of 20 craft take off and depart mostly upward for 5 minutes a day from on or near east coast, as sun sets in west. Followed by Another 10 minutes of about 16 landers = 3 more land a lot further down range – perhaps up to 3000Km East some may launch/land from near “ocean island”


precision landings” Preferably onto waiting (empty) launch and landing towers.


3 of the AscentCraft fleet “refuellers” atmospheric re-entry and (retro rocket) have to land precisely hundreds of Km down range, and be returned later to launch base. For “safety”, “politics” and “commerce” they may have a human pilot in addition to the normal remote ones “joy rider” can risk a trip in this to space, though we do not offer weightlessness, only fractional gravity and modest acceleration – 1.5 to 2.5G


ed refuelling craft. Do we pay the pilot? And his “passengers” a secondary issue that may affect bottom line

Earth

23.4 degrees from ecliptic

15:13:52

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimborazo There are two functioning Huts, the Carrel Hut (4,850 m) and the nearby Whymper Hut (5,000 m). The Carrel Hut can be reached by car from Riobamba, Ambato or Guaranda.


from Chimborazo. Equador, (brazil – amazon basin)



ascentcraft base There are two “ideal” launching areas to get AscentCraft into equatorial orbit.



More advantageous is Chimborazo. Equador, this is a tall stratovolcano on the equator accessible mostly by road to 5Km altitude - this is a big advantage, as the thinner air allows quicker ascent, and the colder, drier air temperature is better for fuelling and launch speed (limited by craft size and shape and the lower atmosphere drag). Downrange safety is less assured though, as we have to traverse south America – Argentina at about 60Km height, and do 1-3 atmospheric re-entry and (retro rocket) “precision landings”


Both safety and “politics” may make this a piloted refuelling craft. Do we pay the pilot? And his “passengers” a secondary issue that may affect bottom line


The USAgency budget comes from a GLOBAL FUND (not any one nation or alliance group) and is $10Bn per year, or about 3 cents per person per week.


Equador is a lot more politically stable and has several very high mountain peaks on the equator. A 4Km “refuelling” base already “has road access” … kerosene supply pipelines and power can be temporary

.. the direct Easterly ascent is over South America, and at least ONE of the fleet (the last refueller to detach) will have to land in Brazil. The satellite's path out is over the Amazon basin, on the accelerate run at about 70Km height.

the last refueller will almost always land after the local sunset, about 1,000Km East of the ground launch point.

Air capture at 10Km is feasible, but air refuelling (via a refueller aircraft's intermediate rocket flying craft) would be better.


The technical level is to be seen more on the website – the relevances may not be directly obvious, so it is a good task to give to a non-technical person to re-write, … or help me re-write this such that (say) to accompany...


a request to Brazilian government for air clearance to land 2 spacecraft in a field, to refuel them, and permit a re-launch and Air Traffic Clearance for 1000Km back to the west. …. and We pay you $100K every so often? We pay you $10M for a year?


With their responses, possibly, eloquent, WTF


You can see I need to make it clear what I'm trying to do for whom

tell me – how should I do this?

Do I need to “Put on a show”? What's needed?


LAUNCH BASE -

our AscentCraft.com fleet requires about 4,000 tonnes of propellant to launch one 30 tonne craft to orbit per day, and the 20 ship fleet have to be fuelled and maintained 130 tonnes of (cryogenic) Liquid Oxygen under Equatorial sun in each … and all kept about 100metres apart in case one blows up, preferably further! Yet maintained. A lake or shallow sea is preferable for the launch towers, to enable propellant service pipes to maiintain safe pre-launch propellant temperatures, and allow the refuelling (ocean) ships to fill the tanks. There is only 1 optimum place where such big ships and equipment can both operate and shelter from a severe equatorial storm. It's Just South of Mogadishu, East Coast of Africa. World centre for Pirates... there may be vulnerability issues... it has a good Eastern Ocean safety zone, though shipping and aircraft lanes may have to be cleared for the (daily) launch window.

Safer for launching, but needing sizable safe harbour construction is


Nauru has a decent airport, and small west coast harbour - Anibare, on the East coast would need a big harbour, though there is some capability for unloading fuel on the west coast ½ deg south 167 degrees East


and/or nearby Ocean Island … It has a Police station (picture) … but no airstrip... East and north Coast unpopulated .and suitable ...1 deg South, 170 degrees East





ismayo (Somalia) south of Mogadishu is less than ½ degree South, 42 degrees east and has a really large well-protected harbour – nearest airport is Mogadishu.. there are several reefs and offshore islands and protected waters to the south

18:28:46

19:41:35 at 1deg30 north, 78w. Equadorian Volcano is 5.8km high Nevado Cayambe Volcano Antisano 5.7km high at 0.5 deg south 78w and has a large flat snow covered top … this is ideal, except for having to cross South America peru,columbia and Brazil … though mostly jungle. El cotopaxi is at 41 minutes south = “warm” crater … but getting ships returned here VERY difficult, fuel too. Politics?









SPECIFICATIONS


The total engine thrust is 1.5 times the maximum loaded weight, that fullness of tank is only for the last 2 or 3 stages, which (above 60Km) start the main Easterly drive towards orbit, reaching 2Km/sec by the time the last refueller has to drop off, leaving the orbit bound ship at heaviest fuel load. Pointing 45 degrees from the vertical thereby supporting 1G of Gravity, and an initial 1G of downrange acceleration, increasing as propellant mass is consumed.

Unlike conventional rockets, we carry more propellant than is needed – our 30 tonne canister typically still contains about 6 tonnes of propellant at MECO (Main Engine Cut Off) and this has to be made safe as soon as possible. For this reason we launch at about Sundown, such that our orbit commences with the first 45 minutes in the dark of Earth's Shadow, rather than into full sunlight. Ascent Craft orientation and the erection of a Reflective shield, plus powering up powerful onboard refrigerator to further chill Liquid Oxygen is most effective in Dark side. We burn some of our propellant to generate power, and the exhaust – Hot CO2 and H2O is cooled into water and dry ice, which are easy to store, and are useful.

If we get a performancew drop or engine failure, we are still capable of getting to the required orbit, though with a lesser reserve, and a fair bit rearward in LEO-PORT's Orbit. If we didn't have this reserve, and had a partial failure, we would not achieve orbit, and the Ascent Craft would be lost. Not much would survive re-entry, but some engine parts might fall to Earth, hundreds – perhaps a thousand Km East of the launch point.


The extra fuel COULD be used to reach Haven1's orbit at 900Km, but there are more efficient ways for this transfer. If we can safely store propellants as stated, we can use our abundant electrical power to re-split Water into H2 and O2 for better power to weight propellant, and CO2 can also be converted to its components by powered machines or agriculture – growing trees for example. Water is needed aboard, and extra water is also very desirable on board for use, and as daytime mass shielding … as well as a high power propellant...






VASIMR engines (argon has to be brought from earth as its “consumable” reaction mass) are highly mass efficient, but their thrust is very low. We have as much electrical power as needed, but such thrusters to date only handle a few kilowatts , 1,000 of these would be very heavy...but a low level can be used to maintain LEO-Port's 300Km orbit, which still has some residual air drag. It also can “spin up” a hefty rotating tether over a long period, to catapult medium mass modules to other orbits – and compensate LEO-Port for its small velocity loss. When that mass is released.


As we have a very large (200metres x 200metres) craft, a high current can be circulated to react against Earth's magnetic field. A superconducting loop can be safely internal in the ship/habitat or a much bigger external loop of many turns could be used externaly ... this may work ( or may not.)




..










<Editing, 1102-015>


Their primary purpose is to provide daily transport of construction components to LEO-Port in an orbit of about 300Km via a “staged” fleet approach requiring a number of skilled pilots to dock and undock with other similar craft in flight, and transfer fuel (RP1 - kerosene) and oxidant (liquid Oxygen) between a fleet of such AscentCraft. Solid boosters are NOT used, all parts and craft can be utilised for several other tasks, many for terrestrial heavy lift (400 tonne) “SkyCrane” tasks such as Very high weight pick-and place, and major forest fire-fighting operations. Their “dry” weight is 30 tonnes, consisting of 6 or more “conventional” Kerosene Rocket engines (massing 1 tonne each) , mounted on a hexagonal support frame which carries 3 large tanks – 2 for oxygen and 1 for kerosene - with a capacity of about 150 cubic metres each (about 450 tonnes), but they do not need the large “launch pad” that fully fuelled conventional orbit shots require. A single craft, on a very low power setting has only 30 tonnes of fuel aboard, so only requires a bit more than 60 tonnes thrust for takeoff, though the engines can provide more than 600 tonnes thrust.


This first craft, so fuelled can lift (by cable) A much fuller fuelled craft from a support stand, several hundred meters before the second craft fires up its engines, detaches from the hoist cable, then is piloted to a mechanical in-flight coupling with the first craft to replenish its fuel. The rest of the fleet is lifted to start up height in a similar manner. There may be a dozen such craft in an orbital insertion sequence. Any of these craft can be piloted to re-landed (with a low fuel load) on any flat surface with a bit of ground scorching … a simple 3 leg fixed landing legs makes this possible, where they bcan be again “slightly” refuelled and take off again for a short flight time, depending on the load these thirsty engines use. Seldom does one fleet ship work alone.


A typical 1 tonne kerosene rocket engine as used in the last 40 years has a thrust to weight ratio of 100 – and most craft have 6 engines, sometimes 7 engines. The 3 tanks are identical or similar and may be configured

1) in a row

2) in a triangular array

3) on top of each other (conventional rocket craft)


3 TANKS These THREE tanks are large diameter (7m?) (37 square metres)and not very tall.(6m?) And have an empty weight of about 5 tonnes each.

Total 15 tonnes - half the Ascent Craft's 30 tonne dry weight. The 222 cubic metre space is to be a “standard” 100KPa atmospheric pressure containers for people in the planned habitats LEO-PORT and HAVEN1 ...and take an overload to 200KPa


a (3 degree?) tapered cylinder (ideally with the engines on the smaller end) with an internal support column . The parts are designed to be unscrew able – tank tube, small end, big end, central support. Such that long, large cylinders can be assembled and modified in orbit by Spidermen or remote manipulations.


Unlike the “standard” rocket craft, we do not drop anything at sub-orbital speed – except our rocket exhaust. Most Engines may never be needed again, but form part of the essential hefty mass shielding between cabin and the sun.


although only 2 tanks (oxygen and kerosene) are needed, twice the weight and volume of Liquid Oxygen is needed. The DEPTH of the fuel (say, 5 metres) would be equivalent to a 15 metre depth when accelerating at 3G. At that acceleration, we only want a 3m depth for a 200MPa rated tank.


The THIRD use of the tank is as mass shielding (at a narrow angle) for a larger diameter habitat. We want 1500 tanks per year at $500,000 each. They don't have to all be identical. Aerodynamics don't matter much, as we don't go fast until more than 25Km up.


6 ENGINES are mounted at the points of a hexagonal spoked “wheel” frame. The centre point may either support a hefty lifting cable, (or a 7th engine, for the orbiter). The engines are (adjustably) angled outward at perhaps 10 degrees, perhaps on a universal joint for greater control, High pressure fuel and oxidant are connected through this joint also. A single rocket turbine provides all pumping, hydraulic and electric power. A second one is also running, a 3rd one can be started if one or both “primaries” fail in flight. 500 craft will need 3,000 rocket engines per year


Chassis – the chassis is a PressureStruts assembly linking the engines and tanks and heavy lift point, with 3 support legs for “lightweight” land and take off/


SPA “The Spa” is a payload container tank. Passengers could ride in this with minimum discomfort, even at high G loading (6G) if needed. Ditto any other “fragiles” Or else be just a container for Payload goods.






Lord Oxford, Chiang Mai, TH 0507-013


Previously...


shape more than the normal “minimum weight” for conventional launches, where tanks (and engines) are discarded at near orbital velocities to increase orbital payload. They ARE the payload – perhaps 90% of it!

The craft is not very streamlined, and spends a considerable time (burning a lot of propellants) in a slow ascent through the dense lower layers of the atmosphere, consuming a lot more fuel to do so.. the craft is not stressed by high and supersonic forces needed by conventional “full power at launch” mode. Full power is only applied above 50Km, where air drag is of little significance.


The “fleet” transfers fuel between craft to keep the main ascending, accelerating craft(s) fuel tanks topped up. As these other “helper” Ascent Craft's fuel is transferred to the main orbit shot group. The offloading craft drops off from the assembly with a small reserve of fuel sufficient to enable them to land safely with a few tonnes of reserve fuel.


Those craft departing this launch sequence later (at higher altitudes and down-range velocities) will need to have more fuel to decelerate and land than the first ones dropped off at lower height and speed. An additional fleet craft at high altitude (60Km?) may add extra fuel for the descent and landing from that altitude, meaning that the last orbiter supply craft has to maintain only enough fuel to reduce its downrange velocity for safe re-entry. .


At an altitude of about 80Km, and a downrange velocity of about 2Km/sec the final stage, fully fuelled AscentCraft continues alone, with its fuel tank full, and all engines burning it is more than capable of making orbit – even if one (or two) engines fail Several tonnes of extra fuel is carried to achieve this arrival on orbit, should such failures occur. If all succeed, this valuable fuel reserve is stored safely as a resource there.. Liquid oxygen is dangerous and problematic, but it can be used, or “wastefully” made safe by burning into water and CO2 safer to store as “dry ice”. Abundant electrical power can “re-manufacture” CO2 and water into Oxygen and kerosene, if needed later.

















NK-33


The Russian NK-33 was modified and renamed the AJ26-58 by Aerojet. This AJ26-58 is shown during a test firing at Stennis Space Center

Country of origin

Russia

Date

1970s

Designer

Kuznetsov Design Bureau

Manufacturer

Aerojet

Application

1st stage multi-engine

Predecessor

NK-15, NK-15V

Successor

AJ26-58, AJ26-59

Liquid-fuel engine

Propellant

LOX / RP-1 (rocket grade kerosene)

Cycle

Staged combustion

Pumps

Turbopump

Performance

Thrust (vac.)

1,753.8 kN (394,300 lbf)

Thrust (SL)

1,505 kN (338,000 lbf)

Thrust-to-weight ratio

137

Chamber pressure

145 bar (14,500 kPa)

Isp (vac.)

331 s

Isp (SL)

297 s

Dimensions

Length

3.7 m (12 ft)

Diameter

2 m (6 ft 7 in)

Dry weight

1,235 kg (2,720 lb)



0104-013 edit


The Ascent Craft used to build Haven1 and LEO-Port are multifunction – see TripleUse.com

but can be used for other purposes both before and after achieving orbit, with modification. A large number of essentially identical craft are used individually and in fleet mode.





1603-013

Low earth orbit is about 90 minutes, orbits realign every 24 hours or 16 orbits from one “mostly fixed” launch zone to next alignment, but others may be near - perhaps “3 launches per spot” else daily launch 30 tonnes 100 launches for Haven1's 3,000 tonne habitat 100 person semi self sufficient....


to achieve daily launches we have to gather the fleet and its fuel supplies at the launch stage #2 at 10Km, fleet prepared, 20 aircraft?


However, with first 100 craft, they are less needed. Refuelling aircraft may be supported or assist lift when stalled.... Platform refueller 300t * 10 craft = 3000t


a single craft #0 + 30 tonne = 60 tonne can support 600 tonne max,,, 300 tonne easily.... how about a 9 craft strato-launch


2103-013


HAVEN1


a simplified full size model of haven1 would consist of three 25m diameter metal tubes 150metres long in paralell, with 4 lighter tubes connecting the 3 segments,

it could be “a large trimaran” and could float on water. The real one is assembled in orbit and weighs about 3,000 tonnes – though functionally, it can start off smaller and grow bigger as the “henry ford” practical ascent craft delivers components for telechir operators (remote workers) to assemble.


ascent craft designed for mass production these craft are delivered to orbit with a mass of 30 tonnes typically once per day. Most of the 30 tonnes is fuel tanks and (7) engines – they are not designed to re-enter, nor do they throw away expensive “stages”.


They don't LOOK like conventional space launches, and they don't need a spaceport to launch from. They are multiple channel, multiple remote operator controlled, the small cargo space can be used to carry (non-piloting) personnel with very little training or other rugged or delicate articles. We make hundreds of them, perhaps thousands. They are similar or identical and have at least TripleUse


Most of their bulk is in 3 large fuel tanks – each about 5metres diameter and 5 metres high.

They are not assembled on top of each other, as in a conventional rockets, but in either a row or a triangle.

These tanks are likely to be conical, 6 metres at the top, and 4m at the bottom.. capacity is about 150 cubic metres each


on a support frame below these 3 tanks are the 7 main rocket engines each delivering 100 tonnes of thrust, the fuel pumps, flight control, cargo and connections such as “landing legs” and/or in-flight grappling and fuel transfer ports


Ground Launching

although capable of carrying 450 tonnes of propellant (300 tonnes LO2 / LOX + 100 tonnes of RP4 / Kerosene) with delivering a thrust of about 700 tonnes, this is not the planned operation - it would need a substantial fixed launching facility. And would not achieve orbit.


Only 30 tonnes of propellant is loaded for a total craft weight of 60 tonnes, and less than one engine is needed for takeoff – probably 3 of the 7 used at 50% power throttle setting, and only for 2 seconds before a further throttle back is implemented. Experiencing a 2.5G acceleration (less gravity is 15m/s-s upward acceleration the craft is now ascending at 30m/sec and is 30metres above the launch base. Only one engine is now needed at about 70% power to continue ascent at 30m/sec (100Km/hr) despite the big upward airdrag of 3x6m diameter ( 80 square metres) unstreamlined tanks. The next 10 seconds vertical takes us another 300m (1,000 feet) where we may convert (translate) to a fixed height, horizontal acceleration such that we can rendezvous with an in-flight aircraft refueller.


Failing this, we have a few minutes capability to retro rocket descend to a landing. We may use some (external?) aerodynamic support structure or support cables to support us during this phase from a large aircraft or other “flying structure” - or we can just use our throttled engines as support during refuelling – of all or a greater amount of our fuel capacity.


The launch craft (fuelled) can also do “earthly” work as a skycrane for (mostly short duration) very high lift hoisting jobs up to 500 tonnes!


With a winch from (say) 5Km height a 500 tonne fuel tank can be “statically” lifted and used to refuel this craft, or others – and be kept there by some of that fuel as it hauls up more. Military apps may drop a 100 tonne manned facility on a mountain top with only a few seconds exposure to countermeasures, with soldiers experiencing a modest 4G on bean bags for 10 seconds of deceleration from speed-of-sound descent approach in last 1,500 metres of descent. 500 tonnes of water is also good for MAJOR fire-fighting efforts – though the fuel cost is a lot higher for rockets than jets, their power-to weight, simplicity controlability and reliability makes them “safer” smaller, and more versatile power houses. Aerodynamic lift and fan-jets are much more fuel efficient – ordinary (large) aircraft can perform many support functions cheaply and need little adaption – but we can do without.


Returning to the ascent craft's major purpose – getting to orbit - this is not possible nor intended by a single craft

The “payload” of 10 tonnes for $40M is the current payload to orbit cost for commercial disposable rockets

annual budget $15.6Bn for 1 launch per day*1


*1 – all launches are at ''sun overhead date- time” and from the tropics. At the equator mid autumn AND mid spring, launches can occur every 90 minutes with high efficiency to a single orbital location on the solar plane as it coincides with the equator. The efficiency is lower for 90 minute launches otherwise - from a single launch zone to a single orbital assembly area


Technology

most of the technology required is more than a quarter century old. “It's not rocket science” - is a popular saying, but “rocket science” is many centuries old and easier than “car science”. A kerosene rocket is merely a metal vase into which liquid fuel (kerosene type RP4) and liquid oxygen are pumped at fairly high pressure, and a bucket of sparks is thrown in to make it burn. Very hot gas is then blown out to give a thrust reaction. For nearly 70 years (since V2) this has barely changed.

A power to weight ratio of 100 is normal.... a 1 tonne engine produces 100 tonnes of thrust. Mass production 1000 units should be below $1M per engine. Including pumps.


We can do a little bit better with hydrogen fuel, but it has a number of drawbacks in storage and use (bulky, cold) and it burns a fair bit hotter. The “greener” argument is not valid, as hydrogen is extracted from fossil fuel refineries. Also, the main usage is not at ground level, and we don't use the very dirty “solid rocket boosters” which are also of low efficiency, and not dynamically controllable. Carrying a fuel reserve (as we do) presents an orbital explosion risk far greater than kerosene though the stabilised compact remnant is water and CO2, this gas can be easily stored as dry ice. This is very useful for controlling pressurisation and, like water, can be re-processed into propellant if needed for engines that we still have.



The ascent craft

It doesn't “do it in one go” such is very inefficient – and it is not a return craft – such are manufactured in orbit but they MAY use “the ascending fleet” to descend from 50Km having used high temperature rocket engine parts as aerobraking heat shields. This is not an immediate problem, and foreign craft may also return visitors to Haven1 to Earth's surface. The point of the ascent craft is to maximise the useful mass to orbit for re-use(s) or re-cycling in Haven1 or its pre-cursor,

LEO-Port.


100 identical ascent craft are the initial order – each with 7 engines and 3 large tanks. These tanks are the key to starting the Gravsat habitat, though each 3 - 6 craft essentially form the “nose cone” to a single such Haven1 type craft, many will be built, and in the meantime a “more cramped” but usable volume to live work and store in is producible before larger series need to be introduced. Many of the tanks first used for fuels are adapted for pressurised habitat use. These tanks are made in 5 parts that are SCREWED together either directly or with joining rings.


Tube – these are 4 - 6m diameter cones or pipes, 5m long (they are used “horizontally” in orbit / habitat mode) threaded top and bottom such that the end plates (previously the 4m diameter “bottom” and 5m diameter “top”) can be unscrewed, and the small ends can be joined together, and/or the large ends joined together.


This “concertina” pipe is the initial “living in” volume of haven1 / LEO-Port – a single “room” is 6m diameter in the middle, and 4m diameter at the “ends” 10m apart

the 3rd tank (on a single ascent craft) could be added for an extra half room or applied to other purposes (such as tankage without further work)


the two “spare” 6m diameter (large) end plates may become parabolic reflectors for energy collection and/or shielding – the parabolic shape may also be better in ascent mode for lessening drag, and providing aerodynamic lift in “towed” or partly horizontal flight for fuelling


the 4th tank component is an internal tube of about 1m diameter securing the tank “roof” to the tank “floor” for greater strength during high G acceleration and dynamic flight. It can also be unscrewed and used for other purposes such as connecting the three parts of Haven1 together, and providing pressurised access and transit.between them (typically 4 tubes x100m long are required – about 80 pieces brought up in 27 ascent craft)

.


though the ascent craft is not capable of high speed ascent for its travels tbelow 50Km

initial 3km at 30m/sec 100 seconds

from 3-6Km 60 – 100m/sec at 6Km.Height 50 seconds =150

from 6km to 12Km from 100 -200m/sec 40 seconds -190

from 12Km- 25Km from 200-300m/sec 52 seconds =242

from 25Km to 50Km from 300-1000m/sec 50 seconds =292 , (sound barrier weak) to 1000m/sec (mach3)

50Km – begin launch run at full power and drop first tanker. boost at full power 2 0r 3 ships fuelled and at full thrust

(want only 2G with overful tanks, 350 tonne on 700 tonne thrust)

with 1km/sec upward vector at 50Km inertial carry to 100Km in 100 seconds. Horizontal 2G acceleration of “free falling” (upwards). A tourist rider or two?

During 100 second 2G boost ALL of it is horizontal and 2Km/sec downrange speed is achieved .

.. We are go for orbital insertion at 7.5Km/sec with a 2-4G acceleration for about 200 seconds total flight time 492 seconds – slightly over 8 minutes.!

5 minutes not accelerating


a 150Kpa stainless tank, 7m in diameter would need 5mm thickness. 40Kg/sq.m 21x5m high = 105 sq.m, (=4200Kg

end caps 37x2 = 72 sq.m 2880Kg /pair.

total 177 x40= 7080 Kg however, (the top cap can be lighter tank can be 6 tonne


aluminium 2;8Kg x 10mm (28Kg/sq.m)


the reason for stainless is insufficient – thicker or multi-layer aluminium – make bigger – AND MAKE DOUBLE SKIN



Thu 2103-013

To build Haven1


A “Henry Ford” production principle is the way to get unit cost down. This principle has to be applied to spacecraft – simple, proven, mass produced articles - assembled in production line, tested and checked in a production line. Repetitive, habitually thorough and tested . So here is:-


AscentCraft

The Ascent craft and methodology is significantly different from conventional design. This is because we need to get BIG container/ components to orbit, many of them, more cost effectively, mass produced and assembled from tested parts. The principles of Standard-Machine and TripleUse

are applied to its design and operation. The Ascent Craft is required to deliver to orbit a mass of 30 tonnes – mainly its large pressure /fuel tanks


The target orbit (LEO-Port) is one point on the solar plane (ecliptic) at about 300Km “height”

from a given (tropical) launch zone, we have 1 optimum launch per day. Equatorially, around 22 March and around 22 September , we can launch 16 times a day (once per orbit)


Most of the 30 tonnes is fuel tanks and (7) engines – they are not designed to re-enter, nor do they throw away expensive “stages”.the 7 engines are multi-start throttlable and steerable


The AscentCraft don't LOOK like conventional space launches, and they don't need a spaceport to launch from. They are multiple channel, multiple remote operator controlled, the small cargo space can be used to carry (non-piloting) personnel with very little training or other rugged or delicate articles. We make hundreds of them, perhaps thousands. They are similar or identical and have at least TripleUse


Most of their bulk is in 3 large fuel tanks – each about 5metres diameter and 5 metres high.

They are not assembled on top of each other, as in a conventional rockets, but in either a row or a triangle.

These tanks are likely to be conical, 6 metres at the top, and 4m at the bottom.. capacity is about 150 cubic metres each


on a support frame below these 3 tanks are the 7 main rocket engines each delivering 100 tonnes of thrust, the fuel pumps, flight control, cargo and connections such as “landing legs” and/or in-flight grappling and fuel transfer ports


Ground Launching

although capable of carrying 450 tonnes of propellant (300 tonnes LO2 / LOX + 100 tonnes of RP4 / Kerosene) with delivering a thrust of about 700 tonnes, this is not the planned operation - it would need a substantial fixed launching facility. And would not achieve orbit.


Only 30 tonnes of propellant is loaded for a total craft weight of 60 tonnes, and less than one engine is needed for takeoff – probably 3 of the 7 used at 50% power throttle setting, and only for 2 seconds before a further throttle back is implemented. Experiencing a 2.5G acceleration (less gravity is 15m/s-s upward acceleration the craft is now ascending at 30m/sec and is 30metres above the launch base. Only one engine is now needed at about 70% power to continue ascent at 30m/sec (100Km/hr) despite the big upward airdrag of 3x6m diameter ( 80 square metres) unstreamlined tanks. The next 10 seconds vertical takes us another 300m (1,000 feet) where we may convert (translate) to a fixed height, horizontal acceleration such that we can rendezvous with an in-flight aircraft refueller.


Failing this, we have a few minutes capability to retro rocket descend to a landing. We may use some (external?) aerodynamic support structure or support cables to support us during this phase from a large aircraft or other “flying structure” - or we can just use our throttled engines as support during refuelling – of all or a greater amount of our fuel capacity.


The launch craft (fuelled) can also do “earthly” work as a skycrane for (mostly short duration) very high lift hoisting jobs up to 500 tonnes!


With a winch from (say) 5Km height a 500 tonne fuel tank can be “statically” lifted and used to refuel this craft, or others – and be kept there by some of that fuel as it hauls up more. Military apps may drop a 100 tonne manned facility on a mountain top with only a few seconds exposure to countermeasures, with soldiers experiencing a modest 4G on bean bags for 10 seconds of deceleration from speed-of-sound descent approach in last 1,500 metres of descent. 500 tonnes of water is also good for MAJOR fire-fighting efforts – though the fuel cost is a lot higher for rockets than jets, their power-to weight, simplicity controlability and reliability makes them “safer” smaller, and more versatile power houses. Aerodynamic lift and fan-jets are much more fuel efficient – ordinary (large) aircraft can perform many support functions cheaply and need little adaption – but we can do without.


Returning to the ascent craft's major purpose – getting to orbit - this is not possible nor intended by a single craft

The “payload” of 10 tonnes for $40M is the current payload to orbit cost for commercial disposable rockets

annual budget $15.6Bn for 1 launch per day*1


*1 – all launches are at ''sun overhead date- time” and from the tropics. At the equator mid autumn AND mid spring, launches can occur every 90 minutes with high efficiency to a single orbital location on the solar plane as it coincides with the equator. The efficiency is lower for 90 minute launches otherwise - from a single launch zone to a single orbital assembly area


Technology

most of the technology required is more than a quarter century old. “It's not rocket science” - is a popular saying, but “rocket science” is many centuries old and easier than “car science”. A kerosene rocket is merely a metal vase into which liquid fuel (kerosene type RP4) and liquid oxygen are pumped at fairly high pressure, and a bucket of sparks is thrown in to make it burn. Very hot gas is then blown out to give a thrust reaction. For nearly 70 years (since V2) this has barely changed.

A power to weight ratio of 100 is normal.... a 1 tonne engine produces 100 tonnes of thrust. Mass production 1000 units should be below $1M per engine. Including pumps.


We can do a little bit better with hydrogen fuel, but it has a number of drawbacks in storage and use (bulky, cold) and it burns a fair bit hotter. The “greener” argument is not valid, as hydrogen is extracted from fossil fuel refineries. Also, the main usage is not at ground level, and we don't use the very dirty “solid rocket boosters” which are also of low efficiency, and not dynamically controllable. Carrying a fuel reserve (as we do) presents an orbital explosion risk far greater than kerosene though the stabilised compact remnant is water and CO2, this gas can be easily stored as dry ice. This is very useful for controlling pressurisation and, like water, can be re-processed into propellant if needed for engines that we still have.


The ascent craft


It doesn't “do it in one go” such is very inefficient – and it is not a return craft – such are manufactured in orbit but they MAY use “the ascending fleet” to descend from 50Km having used high temperature rocket engine parts as aerobraking heat shields. This is not an immediate problem, and foreign craft may also return visitors to Haven1 to Earth's surface. The point of the ascent craft is to maximise the useful mass to orbit for re-use(s) or re-cycling in Haven1 or its pre-cursor,

LEO-Port.


100 identical ascent craft are the initial order – each with 7 engines and 3 large tanks. These tanks are the key to starting the Gravsat habitat, though each 3 - 6 craft essentially form the “nose cone” to a single such Haven1 type craft, many will be built, and in the meantime a “more cramped” but usable volume to live work and store in is producible before larger series need to be introduced. Many of the tanks first used for fuels are adapted for pressurised habitat use. These tanks are made in 5 parts that are SCREWED together either directly or with joining rings.


Tube – these are 4 - 6m diameter cones or pipes, 5m long (they are used “horizontally” in orbit / habitat mode) threaded top and bottom such that the end plates (previously the 4m diameter “bottom” and 5m diameter “top”) can be unscrewed, and the small ends can be joined together, and/or the large ends joined together.


This “concertina” pipe is the initial “living in” volume of haven1 / LEO-Port – a single “room” is 6m diameter in the middle, and 4m diameter at the “ends” 10m apart

the 3rd tank (on a single ascent craft) could be added for an extra half room or applied to other purposes (such as tankage without further work)


the two “spare” 6m diameter (large) end plates may become parabolic reflectors for energy collection and/or shielding – the parabolic shape may also be better in ascent mode for lessening drag, and providing aerodynamic lift in “towed” or partly horizontal flight for fuelling


the 4th tank component is an internal tube of about 1m diameter securing the tank “roof” to the tank “floor” for greater strength during high G acceleration and dynamic flight. It can also be unscrewed and used for other purposes such as connecting the three parts of Haven1 together, and providing pressurised access and transit.between them (typically 4 tubes x100m long are required – about 80 pieces brought up in 27 ascent craft)


back to ascent craft -


though the ascent craft is not capable of high speed ascent for its travels tbelow 50Km

initial 3km at 30m/sec 100 seconds

from 3-6Km 60 – 100m/sec at 6Km.Height 50 seconds =150

from 6km to 12Km from 100 -200m/sec 40 seconds -190

from 12Km- 25Km from 200-300m/sec 52 seconds =242

from 25Km to 50Km from 300-1000m/sec 50 seconds =292 , (sound barrier weak) to 1000m/sec (mach3)

50Km – begin launch run at full power and drop first tanker. boost at full power 2 0r 3 ships fuelled and at full thrust

(want only 2G with overful tanks, 350 tonne on 700 tonne thrust)

with 1km/sec upward vector at 50Km inertial carry to 100Km in 100 seconds. Horizontal 2G acceleration of “free falling” (upwards). A tourist rider or two?

During 100 second 2G boost ALL of it is horizontal and 2Km/sec downrange speed is achieved .

.. We are go for orbital insertion at 7.5Km/sec with a 2-4G acceleration for about 200 seconds total flight time 492 seconds – slightly over 8 minutes.!

5 minutes not accelerating


a 150Kpa stainless tank, 7m in diameter would need 5mm thickness. 40Kg/sq.m 21x5m high = 105 sq.m, (=4200Kg

end caps 37x2 = 72 sq.m 2880Kg /pair.

total 177 x40= 7080 Kg however, (the top cap can be lighter tank can be 6 tonne

\



2203?

Sat 2303-013 .

... Ascent Craft


SPIDERS


SPIDERS are mechanical devices for doing work around orbital craft – we don't want biological creatures “out there” they are telechirs or “avatar like” mechanisms, driven remotely, with touch and video feedback. They may consist of a canister body (or several, articulated) and 8 spindly legs that can clamber or grasp structures. Ties and even possibly “glue” can be manipulated from a “spinerrette” or spool for such purposes.


The spider's “head” consists of A humaniform feedback body of waist to arms and head may be operated remotely by a person in an appropriate rig or suit or tank. 2 other operators may control the eight legs. Scale may be 1:1 or of smaller or larger size according to needs,

our ascent craft may carry several of these, and a range of “hand” power tools for them to use. These are the initial “crew” dependant on communication channels and available energy. They may also “ride a scooter” and/or have some light rocket vectoring if outside of “the safety rope area”


on an ascent craft reaching orbit (preferably in planetary shadow – 45 minutes before full solar exposure – a primary task for the spiders is to erect a solar heat shield for the tank still containing some liquid oxygen. It may be as simple as a temporary whipple shield, if time is limited, but by pumping all O2 into the other 02 tank the now empty tank can have its large end top (6m diameter) unscrewed, and moved to shield “the sharp end” - formerly the tank base/engine mounting end, now, in orbit, the permanently sunward facing end. Later, the rays of focussed sunlight will provide power, for now, solar heat shielding is the need.


A second tank now has its large end removed, after emptying. Probably easier to store the kerosene elsewhere than our “unstable” cryogenic oxygen tank #2


removing this second (now “topless” tank from its engine mounts, it is now inverted and (after removing the 2 centre supports) screwed to the large end of tank #1 making a new large volume available for pressurisation. The exhaust gasses from the burning of the excess fuel and oxidant go into here, where they form CO2 and H20 which can be cooled to liquid water and frozen to dry ice – much safer and more compact.valuable resources, we will use later.


When the reconfigure is finished, some spiders will remain with the ascent craft, to do assembly work, whilst others will take a scooter for their second mission – orbit cleaning, where any identifiable medium to large lump of “space junk” are intercepted and safely “man-handled” back to the craft for recycling as additional and worthwhile mass and/or components, and are no longer an orbital hazard.


The second and thir ship arrive in the vicinity and do likewise. Then they are joined (in parallel together by 100metre ropes and spun around the central one at one RPM. This creates an “artificial gravity of about 1/10 G whilst providing (a slowly rotating “axle”) for docking future additions. We have a habitat (3, in fact), but there is not sufficient screening agaist solar flares for humans or plants. This requires at least 1 tonne per square metre of the sun facing end – for an 8 metre diameter this is 48 tonnes each – but can be of any material – used rocket engines, orbital junk, metal, water, frozen gasses, and we get a bit more of this from every new arrival. Note that we only need it for 1/2 of the orbit at LEO , as Earth is between us and the sun for that time. Water can be in abundant use on the darkside of orbit , so long as it is returned to shields for the sunlight side. Aquaponic growth systems can thrive in such conditions.


When one “tube” is “mass shielded” it can be used for humans, plants and animals with the less massive unshielded tubes at unsymetric distances. IF WE WANT HIGHER gravity, these lengths can be increased, or the spin rate increased 1/10G is enough to live and grow somewhat normally and a lot easier than Earth. Zero gravity is available in the centre tube.



100 years ago ….March 1913 …. Henry ford figured out how to make cars available to the masses by a mass production line … World War 1 had not started.

There were very few cars and making one to order might take many months, if they could get someone to make the parts...Biplanes were now available, and may have been cheaper.... neither were as reliable as horses, which did almost all the moving from steam locotomive railw2ay heads, unmechanized.


After 20 launches we have enough shielding and size to accommodate livestock and people and in 3 tubes about 100metre long and 300metres of interconnect pipe. 2nd series craft can begin operations – these have larger tanks or 1 large 6-8m and 1 small but operating from the same engine set with a bit more fuel and/or a higher boost speed. - if series 3 get too heavy, a double array of main engines may be used.


Thu 2803-013 .


Whipple shields are essential on all orbital craft. This is because natural and man made small particles are likely to collide with the craft at 10Km/second, a bit less, and a bit more. Most are small – up to a sand grain size but their ultra velocity turns whatever they are made of into plasma. It punches a minute hole into or through the hull. Whipple shields do not have to be heavy, but as “first impact point” the plasma expands conically before hitting the hull over a wider diameter than the un-whippled particle would.


A massive aluminised whipple shield may form a cleaning system for orbital micro debris – particles that have punched through it have lower orbital velocity, and may then drop out of orbit safely. Larger debris would need more handling, and be recoverable to LEO-Port.

01:28:12 PM

The second use of this massive whipple shield is to reduce global temperature by shading some sunlight. The mass per 100 square kilometres need not be high.

300 micron aluminium is 1Kg/Square metre or 1,000 tonnes per square Km. - perhaps even 3micron aluminium equivalent (10 tonnes/square Km.) may do both tasks .




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